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Application of Multicriteria Decision Analysis to Determine the Value of Prophylaxis Relative to On-Demand Treatment in Hemophilia A and Emicizumab versus Replacement Therapy in the Greek Healthcare Setting
Background and objective: Hemophilia A (HA) is a rare disease that is characterized by congenital underproduction or dysfunction of the endogenous coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). The aim of the present study was to determine the value of prophylaxis versus on-demand treatment strategies for moderate to severe HA (MtSHA) patients and the value of emicizumab in the prophylaxis of MtSHA in Greece, compared with short half-life (SHL) FVIII and extended half-life (EHL) FVIII through multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA).
Methods: A literature review was performed to identify a set of criteria relevant to the therapeutic approaches and therapies under investigation. A performance matrix was populated by two literature reviews and meta-analyses. The criteria selected were hierarchically classified by allocating weights on a 0-100 scale. The performances of therapies were scored at the 100-point scale. The value judgments utilized for weighing and scoring were sourced via a survey among independent multidisciplinary system stakeholders. A linear additive value function was used for the calculation of total value estimates.
Results: The participants ranked 'annual number of bleedings per patient' and 'percentage of target joint bleeds' as the most important criteria, while the least important criterion was the 'annual treatment cost' for both assessments. Based on the weights elicited and the performance in each criterion, the overall value score was higher for prophylaxis treatment (58.27) compared with on-demand treatment (40.13). In the other comparison, the most valued treatment was emicizumab (77.05) followed by EHL FVIII (71.52) and SHL FVIII (19.88). According to the participants, the most important factors for managing MtSHA patients are those related to successful management of bleeding events given their contribution to improved quality of life (QoL) and reduced morbidity.
Conclusions: This MCDA has shown that the prophylaxis strategy was perceived as a more valuable option for managing MtSHA patients when compared with the on-demand strategy. Moreover, emicizumab adds higher value and improves patient QoL compared with replacement therapy for MtSHA in Greece. Emicizumab addresses important unmet needs due to its improved efficacy and mode of administration.