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Cost-effectiveness of Empagliflozin Compared with Dapagliflozin for the Treatment of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Established Cardiovascular Disease in Greece
Gourzoulidis G., Tzanetakos C., Ioannidis I., Tsimihodimos V., Diogo V., Karpouzos G., Papageorgiou G., Kourlaba G. Clinical drug investigation vol. 41,4 (09 March 2021): 371-380. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40261-021-01013-w
Background and objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accounts for approximately 95% of all diabetes cases and is associated with a substantially elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is 2- to 4-times higher in patients with T2DM compared to those without. The aim of present study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of empagliflozin compared to dapagliflozin for the treatment of patients with T2DM and established CVD in Greece.
Methods: A published health economic model was used to project clinical and economic outcomes of T2DM patients receiving empagliflozin compared to those receiving dapagliflozin. Individual patient-level discrete-event simulation was conducted to predict time-to-event for CV, renal, and adverse events over patients' lifetimes. Hazard ratios for dapagliflozin versus empagliflozin on each clinical event was estimated from DECLARE-TIMI 58 and EMPA-REG OUTCOME trials' data using an indirect treatment comparison. Following a public payer perspective, only direct medical costs related to drug acquisition, fatal/non-fatal diabetes-related complications and adverse events were considered (€2020). Model extrapolated outcomes included life years (LY), quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), costs as well as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Sensitivity analyses explored the impact of changes in input data.
Results: Over a patient's lifetime, empagliflozin was associated with longer mean survival (17.23 LY with empagliflozin vs 16.07 LY with dapagliflozin) and reduced rate of CV mortality resulting in 0.48 more QALYs (9.27 vs 8.79), at additional costs of €462. The generated ICER of empagliflozin was €965 per QALY gained. Deterministic sensitivity analysis confirmed empagliflozin's cost-effective profile. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed that the probability of empagliflozin being cost effective over dapagliflozin was 100%, at the defined threshold of €36,000 per QALY gained.
Conclusion: Empagliflozin was estimated to be a highly cost-effective treatment option compared to dapagliflozin for the treatment of T2DM patients with established CVD in Greece.